Publications:Real-Time Face Detection and Motion Analysis With Application in "Liveness" Assessment


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Title Real-Time Face Detection and Motion Analysis With Application in “Liveness” Assessment
Author Klaus Kollreider and Hartwig Fronthaler and Maycel Faraj and Josef Bigun
Year 2007
PublicationType Journal Paper
Journal IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
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Abstract A robust face detection technique along with mouth localization, processing every frame in real time (video rate), is presented. Moreover, it is exploited for motion analysis onsite to verify "liveness" as well as to achieve lip reading of digits. A methodological novelty is the suggested quantized angle features ("quangles") being designed for illumination invariance without the need for preprocessing (e.g., histogram equalization). This is achieved by using both the gradient direction and the double angle direction (the structure tensor angle), and by ignoring the magnitude of the gradient. Boosting techniques are applied in a quantized feature space. A major benefit is reduced processing time (i.e., that the training of effective cascaded classifiers is feasible in very short time, less than 1 h for data sets of order 104). Scale invariance is implemented through the use of an image scale pyramid. We propose "liveness" verification barriers as applications for which a significant amount of computation is avoided when estimating motion. Novel strategies to avert advanced spoofing attempts (e.g., replayed videos which include person utterances) are demonstrated. We present favorable results on face detection for the YALE face test set and competitive results for the CMU-MIT frontal face test set as well as on "liveness" verification barriers.